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Above is periodic number 20, Calcium.
Atomic mass: 40.08 g/mol
Mass volume: 1.6 g.cm-3 at 20°C
Melting point: 840 °C
Boiling point: 1484 °C
Electronic configuration: [ Ar ] 4s2
The chemical element Calcium (Ca), atomic number 20, is the fifth element and the third most abundant metal in the earth’s crust. The metal is trimorphic, harder than sodium, but softer than aluminium. A well as beryllium and aluminium, and unlike the alkaline metals, it doesn’t cause skin-burns. It is less chemically reactive than alkaline metals and than the other alkaline-earth metals.
Calcium ions solved in water form deposits in pipes and boilers and when the water is hard, that is, when it contains too much calcium or magnesium. This can be avoided with the water softeners. In the industry, metallic calcium is separated from the melted calcium chloride by electrolysis. This is obtained by treatment of carbonated minerals with chlorhydric acid, or like a sub product of the carbonates Solvay process.
In contact with air, calcium develops an oxide and nitride coating, which protects it from further corrosion. It burns in the air at a high temperature to produce nitride.
The commercially produced metal reacts easily with water and acids and it produces hydrogen which contains remarkable amounts of ammonia and hydrocarbides as impurities.
The metal is used in aluminium alloys for bearings, as a helper in the bismuth removal form lead, as well as in controlling graphitic carbon in melted iron. It is also used as a deoxidizer in the manufacture of many steels; as a reducing agent in the preparation of metals as chromium, thorium, zirconium and uranium, and as separating material for gaseous mixtures of nitrogen and argon.
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